This is a copy of an article published in The Peak Advertiser, the Peak District's local free newspaper, on 27th October 1997, reproduced by kind permission of the author, the late Desmond Holden.

The “What's in a Name” series was a regular feature in the Advertiser over the period 1993‑2004, taking a refreshing look at the derivation of some typically Derbyshire surnames.

Articles are confined to the origins and meanings of surnames, and do not indicate any particular interest on Desmond's part in the genealogy, descent, or family history of individuals bearing the surnames featured.

Editor's Note: Articles are provided for general interest and background only. They are not intended to provide an exhaustive treatise for any individual family history - investigations of which may yield quite different results. Or, in Desmond's own words:

“In the end it must remain with individual bearers of the names to draw upon family traditions and to seek out such documentary evidence as is available to decide the matter for themselves.”

Note: this article was transcribed by Ann Andrews, on 2nd April 2001.

WHAT'S IN A NAME … Are you called ANDREWS?

Contrary to a widely held belief "Andrew" is not a Scots name, even though it is that of their Patron Saint. It originated in the Greek Language as "andros" and it means "man" or "manly". It has provided us with many useful expressions. Modern Science Fiction writers make great use of "android" - though it is interesting to note that was already in use as early as 1727. Feminists might like to be aware of "gynocracy" and do away with "androcracy" - but Readers of the "Peak Advertiser" must work out the meanings!

"Andrew" owes its undoubted popularity all over the Western World on account of its having been "conferred" upon one of the Apostles. It is desirable to emphasise "conferred" because he was a Jew and would most certainly have borne a Jewish (i.e. Armaic) name. Today, New Testament scholars have concluded that "Andrew" was an attempt by the Early Church to substitute a Greek equivalent for his original name. Unfortunately this name has been lost and so why "Andrew" was selected is not perfectly understood.

The status of Andrew amongst the Twelve Apostles is high because he was, along with Peter, the first to be chosen (John: I-40). Those who are familiar with the Gospel Narrative will recall that he endeavoured to introduce a Deputation of Greek intellectuals to his Leader (John:XII-22) and that incident may have added to the reputation he later enjoyed in Greece and Russia. Several Early Christian Writers have provided accounts of his journeys which don't always match up. The Russian narratives allege that he made his way along the course of the River Dneiper as far as Kiev and then across the borders of Poland (modern place-names used) and for that reason Russia adopted him as its Patron Saint. The Greeks also gave him this title for themselves and place reliance on more authentic descriptions which indicate that he travelled widely in their Regions. A heavy tradition claims that he was martyred for his faith in Patras (now Patria in the Peloponnesos). The earliest descriptions say that he was simply tied to an Olive Tree and left to die (A.D. 63). However accounts of a later date have converted the tree into the familiar X-shaped device, popularly called "St. Andrew's Cross". It was of course in his honour that the Scots incorporated these diagonals into their National Emblems. They too had adopted him as their Patron Saint. The reason for this lies in the fact that a certain Abbot called Regulus brought some relics of the Apostle from the East (369) and placed them in a monastery around which the City of St. Andrews's developed. His Commemoration day is 30th November.

With such distinguished antecedents it is not surprising that "Andrew" became a popular first name for a boy, except, curiously enough, in the British Islands. For some unknown reason it does not ever appear to have been a favourite here. It was always low down in the frequency charts which cover the years from 1600 to 1950 and then suddenly shot into top groupings until 1990 when it just suddenly plummeted.

In the original Greek "Andrew" was written "Andreas" which became "Andreus" in Latin. On the Continent, and in Germanic Societies especially, the form "andrik" developed which was Latinised into "Andricus". In England and Scotland however the Greek form seems to have prevailed and from which all the easily identifiable surnames, such as "Andrew", "Andrews" and "Andrewes" have evolved. It has also generated the much less familiar forms of "Andros" and "Andrus". Otherwise the Continental versions are responsible for such creations as "Andress", "Anders", Andre" and "Andrea". In passing, since "Andre" as a surname has evolved directly from "Andricus", unless particular families can show it to have been imported from France, the use of an accent over the final "-e" is questionable!

When personal names pass into surnames they invariably indicate the relationship of parent and child. In Modern English, when we wish to suggest that someone or something "belongs" to somebody or something else we can use the word "of". But in Old English we had only a special grammatical construction which involved tagging of the unit "-es" to the end of the word. We still do it today except that we leave out the "-e" and insert an apostrophe so we can say, for example, "the surface of the road" or "the road's surface". In adopting this construction with regard to names, our ancestors quickly dropped the apostrophe and simply added an "-s". So, in answer to the question "Who does that kid belong to?" the answer came, "It's Andrew's -" hence the surname "Andrews". In the vast majority of cases the name settled on "Andrews" but the "es" still survives in "Andrewes" which is much less common.

Most personal names also develop "pet" or "hypochoristic" versions. Did you ever hear of a lad called "Andrew" who would answer to anything but "Andy"? Following the same line of development "Andy's kid" quickly took on the form "Anderson". This form is heavily concentrated in Scotland. We encounter Henry Androson in 1443 and a year later John Andrewson, both in Scotland and today in the Directory for Edinburgh "Anderson" extends across 14 columns yet barely 100 for "Andrews."

The "pet" form of "Andy" also modified into "Dandy" and "Tandy" and generated the surnames in the same form. There are entries in the local directory for both versions as well as the off-shoot "Dando". Although Sir Walter Scott created a memorable character in "Dandie Dinmont" (Guy Mannering) and the well-known Irish Ballad, "Wearing of the Green" introduces "Napper Tandy" neither is exclusively a creation of either country. Forms of "Dandy", especially "Dandison" occur in English Records some 250 years before those of Scotland - Dande de Hale is found in Lancashire in 1246 whereas corresponding entries don't appear in Scotland until 1499. In passing it may be noted that the use of the expression "Dandy" to describe an over- dressed man dates from 1632 and is a mark of admiration ("Ain't it just dandy!") is American and first appears in 1908 and so neither have any bearing on the surname.

As one would expect, in Scotland the form "MacAndrew" occurs and this modifies into "Kendrew". In both Scotland and Ireland "the servant of Andrew" appears as "Gillanders".

From all that has been described, readers of the "Peak Advertiser" can easily detect that an account of all the permutations on the name "Andrew" could be continued almost indefinitely.

Strangely enough, the most celebrated personality bearing a related name is not British but a native of Denmark, namely Hans Anderson (1805-1875) whose charming fairy stories are still appreciated by all children under 100! The name on the form of "-es" is familiar to Church Historians on account of Bishop Lancelot Andrewes (1555-1626) whose character was irreproachable and whose religious writings are still consulted.

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From "The Peak Advertiser", 27th October 1997.

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